Category Archives: Psychology

System 1 and System 2 in testing – part 1

In March 2024 Daniel Kahneman died. He wrote ”Thinking fast and slow”. This book is about how people handle certain situations. He introduced System 1 and System 2.

For the fast observations System 1 is used in most cases. This way of thinking provides fast, almost effortless way to digest information. Like walking to a shop.

For the thoughtful observations System 2 is used. An example is choosing which things to buy in a shop based on a shopping list or availability.

The way users behave, can lead to good test
ideas.

Supporting System 1

Pointing

For a test I needed a program. As usually, I went to the system administrator. He gave me some instructions to install the program on my own. I had to change one setting and only needed to press the Next button.

My thought process was like: is this the option? Yes, change it and press the Next button. Otherwise press the Next button. I had the program installed within minutes.

It went so smoothly, because the Next button was on the same place every time.

“The right lower corner of a well designed
dialog,
the group of a similar looking buttons.
These are a few of my favourite things.”
(On the melody of “My favorite things”)

Simplifying

One of the consequences of the privacy laws is the cookie banner. On one of my favourite web site there are only two buttons: ”Yes, I agree” and “No, thanks” buttons, This is clear and concise.

Knowledge about System 1 in good hands

A good design of the program stimulates the user to use System 1. The program is easy to use.

Abusing System 1

Hiding

In the past I stumbled on a cookie banner. It had the Accept All button and a More Info button. If I really wanted to visit this web site, then I needed to accept all the cookies. Something I was not looking forward to. It was also not compliant with the privacy laws. There was no way to reject the cookies.

But I was curious, I pressed on the More Info button, A dialog popped up with options to reject cookies. If I only used System 1, then I got unwanted cookies on my PC.

Distracting

On a cookie banner from another web site, I was looking for a way to avoid unnecessary cookies. In the right lower corner of the dialog there were no buttons. This is my favourite place to look for buttons.

My view went up and I noticed the Accept All button. It had a different background colour than the body of the dialog. I was about to press this button, when I noticed another button to the left.

The Reject all button had the same background as the body of the dialog. It did not get my attention because of the colours of the Accept All button.

This particular button had also a bigger impact on people, who have problems with reading. They might prefer the emphasised Accept All button over the normal Reject All button. Also. people with visual impairment would make the same choice because of the bad contrast.

“The right upper corner of a bad designed
dialog,
the group of different looking buttons.
These are a few of my dislikeable things.”
(On the melody of “My favorite things”)

Knowledge about System 1 in bad hands

It is possible to make programs in such way that people make bad choices. These situations are called dark patterns. Especially disabled people are easy victims.

“When System 1 rules, when the user clicks,
when the cookies come,
there was nor second thought, nor hesitation,
just a silent urge.”
(On the melody of “My favorite things”)

To be continued.

Non Violent performance testing

A colleague once told about a strange request. Now let me imagine the whole situation.

“Could you perform a performance test tomorrow?”
“If this is an unknown web site it takes 4 weeks: 1 week for test planning, 1 week for scripting, 1 week for execution of the scripts, and 1 week for test rest reporting.
If there are a few minor changes, it takes 2 weeks. If the test scripts and test data do not have to be changed, it will be one week.”

Now imagine the face of the project leader. Poor fellow.

Now I change the request of the project leader.
“I have a web site which must be tested on performance. I am exasperated.
I have a need for participation.
Would you please perform a performance test on my web site tomorrow?”

I used all the elements of the model of Non Violent Communication as described in my previous blog post.

I could add a little more detail.
“The web host provider needs a test report of the web site, that the performance is good. Within 3 days the web site must go live.”

This is a decent request and it is almost impossible to say: No.
Really? I have to fit at least a week of testing in 1 day. It is fair to say that this is not possible. It is not a reasonable request, so it is better to decline.

Then the dance can start. Let me first focus on the need of the project leader.
“I notice that you do not like my answer. Am I right?”
“Yes, you are right.”
“And you have now a need for clarity?”
[after a slow nod]
“I have a need for cooperation.
I am willing to cooperate, but a test plan takes one week.”

Now the dance is focused on the performance tester. It is her or his turn to explain. Almost.

“You extended a cinema web site with an option to order drinks and snacks in advance. It is just one page.”
“Can you not have the computer just click on the page to see what happens? That’s what computers are good at.”

“Would you please let me explain?”
“Yes. Sure.”
“If I would go with 2 friends I would buy three drinks and 3 snacks. Unless it is Monsters Unlimited with the desert scene.
It takes at most 15 clicks for 1 visit.
But there more than 3 visitors for the movie.

Now many people can look to the movie?”
“180. “
“What is the average number of tickets in 1 order?”
“I do not know.”
“Let’s assume it is 2. Then 90 different people will go to the drinks and snack page. So I have 90 sessions for ordering.“

“I can check with marketing and we can go.”
“But those 90 orders are not placed on the same moment.”

At that moment the project leader would look for another performance tester willing to help him.

My colleague had lost a customer. In this case there is no problem.

What happened?

A lot of talking.
“Would you please be more specific?”
“Sure.”

There were needs and feelings mentioned. The performance test coordinator focused on the project leader. And he explained a lot. A lot of talking. But no project though.

It is also possible to focus first on the test coordinator instead of the project leader.

Ready? Set. Speak.

“How can I help you?”
“I talked to my customer. She agreed to postpone the go live date of drink and snack page in the cinema web site.”
“The last time I had not enough time to explain why a performance test takes this long.
I was disgruntled.
I have a need to be understood.
Would you please let me explain, why the performance test takes time?”

More than 5 years ago in my real life I talked with my boss about a performance test. I had calculated that the investment in a performance would be earned back in 3 months. According to some financial standards this is quite good. But budget was too tight. My boss just asked, whether I had signed anything. This was not the case, so he advised to stop.

Other things that happened

A week ago a fellow TestBash speaker wrote a personal story about her needs which were not fulfilled. Poor fellow. There was a lot of emotion in the post. So she quit. And found joy back in little things.

Now you might doubt whether people would really read this story. But there were. Reactions came in. People who were touched by her story. Feelings and needs can be a big + or PLUS in communication.

For the people who are really struggling:

  • Describe the situation in an objective way.
  • Go to the feelings inventory.
    And determine your feeling (watch the flags for other languages available)
  • Go to the needs inventory.
    And determine your need. ([Other languages …] Chinese any one?)
  • Now formulate your request and make it reasonable.

There are other ways to handle difficult situations. One of my most read blog posts last year was about being fired. I unconsciously used stoicism. My need was clear: a need for support my family. But I had no bad feelings on that moment. I neglected the negative ones.

No violence intended

A few weeks ago I talked about a locker problem with a woman of my sport school.
“I put my stuff in locker 8, but the door came loose.”
She smiled:
“Thank you for reporting. We’ll pick this and ..”

“then I moved all my stuff to locker 6.”, I continued at the same pace.
The woman halted. Wrinkles of concern appeared on her face.
“I could not close the door, because there was no current. Then I moved all my stuff to locker 4.”

I waited for a moment.
The woman could not wait any longer:
“What went wrong this time?”
“This one was all right.”
The apologising smile was back on full strength.
I got another set of apologies and a promise to fix.

Incoming heading

What about the rest?

It is not my purpose to leave a trail of bug reports behind. I just noticed something and I shared this with someone who was really interested.

I did not use any violence to break the door off. The hinges had been clicked to the locker. They just unclicked and the woman rememberedthis within milliseconds. I was also Non Violent. I used an element of Non Violent Communication.

What I did, was to tell my observation in an objective way. I did not use any upsetting adjectives like stupid or dumb. It was just a door.

I did not have to use the other parts of model, the feeling the need, and the request. The woman had enough information to fix.

In my previous blog post I already mentioned Non Violent Communication. I realised that I did not write enough about the non violent part. So this is my rebound blog post.

Feeling

After the observation I could tell about my feeling. “I felt annoyed. ”
Wait a sec. Annoyed reads very offensive. It is a feeling that I had at that moment. I am writing for myself. It is not targeted at a person. I just had an experience and I was annoyed about it.

I know there are people who would consider this as an attack. This should not be the case. That is the responsibility of the person who hears my story.

Need

That’s a proper heading.

I had a need for perfection. As a tester I am aware that this is not always possible. But the opening and closing of the lockers can easily be arranged. Common technology I would write.

My need is personal. Some people might whine about it or like it. That is their responsibility. I am the boss of my own feelings and needs. Of course you can help me to determine them, but I can tell which are appropriate. To me.

Request

My request would be like:
“Would you please repair lockers 8 and 6?”

Please notice “Please”. This is a request. It is also used in other languages: bitte, s’il vous plaît, or alstublieft. It actually means: if it pleases you. So it is completely fair to disregard this request.

I just stress it again: it is no order. I am a customer and not a boss. The action would help me, who asks for this action. My bad feeling will go away and my need be fulfilled. That is rather pleasing. For me.

My sport school could do nothing with my request. Depending on previous requests from my side I could stop my subscription.

So I am heading to …

The closing section

Once I read a tweet of some one. I interpreted that this person had enough of a situation. I tweeted:
” I would determine my need and make a reasonable request.”

In my next blog post I will write about being Non Violent in the testing field.